Dandruff- Symptoms, Causes, and Treatments

Author: Shiela Lupiba Shiela Lupiba
Category: Women's Health


What is Dandruff?

Dandruff is connected to Seborrheic Dermatitis (SD), which is characterized by itchy and dry skin, however it exclusively affects the scalp. It is so widespread that it affects approximately half of the world’s adult population, according to Trusted Source.

The majority of people are preoccupied with the flakes. However, itching may be the most distressing of the side effects.

In part, this is due to the fact that it overlaps with other scaly disorders like seborrhoeic dermatitis and other types of dandruff. If the scalp is red and scaling extends beyond it, it is impossible to differentiate dandruff from seborrheic dermatitis.

Also, the mildest form of Seborrhoeic Dermatitis, which manifests itself as dandruff and in which the inflammation is finite and the condition remains subclinical, suggest by numerous reports to have a clear link with dandruff. The presence of lymphoid cells and squirting capillaries in the papillary dermis, as well as signs of spongiosis and localise parakeratosis, is visible on histological examination of the patient.


The most common signs and symptoms of dandruff include flaking and an itchy, scaly scalp. A build-up of white, oily flakes usually occurs in your hair or on your shoulders, and it is most noticeable during the fall and winter months, when the air is particularly dry.

Additional symptoms can include the following:

Dandruff, hair loss, and dry flakes on the skin of the face are all symptoms of erythema, which characterizes by red patches on the skin of the scalp and, occasionally, on the face.

If you’re stressed, the signs and symptoms may be more severe, and they tend to flare up during cold, dry weather.


flaky and scaly scalp

However, while the underlying cause of dandruff will always remain the same, various things might exacerbate the disease, making it appear worse. Among the factors that can aggravate dandruff are:

  • Oily Skin

Causes by a variety of disorders, including seborrheic dermatitis. When you have seborrheic dermatisis, your skin will be red and greasy, and it covers in flaky white or yellow scales.

Besides your scalp, the illness can also manifest itself in other places of the body that contain a high concentration of oil glands, such as the wrinkles around your nostrils and ears, the backs of your ears and groin, and the armpits.

  • Dry Skin

Dry skin, as well as medical conditions such as eczema, can cause your scalp to become dry, flaky, and itchy. Flakes caused by dry skin are typically smaller and less greasy in appearance.

Dry skin can intensify in colder climates and during the winter months, when the weather is very dry.

  • Not shampooing frequently enough

If you do not wash your hair regularly, oils and dead skin cells can accumulate on the scalp, resulting in dandruff. Male hormones, or androgens, can also contribute to greasy or oily skin, which can result in dandruff.

However, excessive shampooing can cause the scalp to dry up and develop dandruff; therefore, it is necessary that you shampoo every other day to maintain a healthy balance.

  • Air Pollution

It is possible that air pollution contributes to dandruff because chemicals circulating in the air might impact the skin and produce irritation or allergic reactions on the skin and scalp, which can result in dandruff.

  • Shampoos containing alkaline ingredients

Individuals who suffer from dandruff should use a pH shampoo that is neutral or slightly acidic in nature. It is possible that your scalp will react if you use a product that is not suitable for you or that you are sensitive to, resulting in an itchy and flaky scalp.

Hair products containing specific oils might also exacerbate dandruff since yeast can feed on these lipids and proliferate when they are present in the environment. Styling products can also accumulate on the scalp, causing greasiness and a greasy appearance.

  • Stress

Your immune system weakened by stress. The bacteria malassezia is already present on everyone’s scalp, but it thrives when the immune system injures, causing dandruff.

Itchy scalp from stress can induce an itch-scratch cycle.


Dandruff is a common scalp ailment characterize by the flaking off of the scalp of little particles of dry skin. Hair treatments such as dandruff shampoo and scalp treatments are the most effective technique to cure and control the condition.

You may include these treatments:

  • Shampoos containing antibacterial agents use when the condition causes by a bacterial infection.

  • Shampoos containing medicated ingredients: These are intended to prevent scaling of the scalp’s skin.

  • A fungal infection is responsible for the illness, and antifungal shampoos are used to treat it.

Note: Please consult your doctor for proper treatment.

Home Remedies

Home Remedies for dandruff

These natural home cures for dandruff may be unfamiliar to you, but they are effective.

  • Vinegar

Itchy, dry skin can be relieved with vinegar, which also has the added benefit of killing dandruff-causing fungus and germs. The acidic nature of vinegar is really effective in reducing flaking to a significant degree.

  • Baking Soda

Baking soda functions as a scrub, exfoliating the scalp softly and effectively without irritating it while also eliminating dead skin cells. Exfoliation is needed in order to prevent a buildup of flakes on the scalp, which can make dandruff even more evident as time goes on.

  • Tea Tree Oil

Since tea tree oil is so effective against fungi and bacteria, it is found in all anti-acne and anti-fungal products. Add a few drops of tea tree oil to your shampoo and wash as usual.

  • Garlic

The pungent smell of a garlic clove may put some people off, but its medical value is undeniable. The benefits of raw or crushed garlic (avoid cooked garlic for treating medical issues) have fascinated man for generations. For immediate effects, pound a garlic clove or two and apply it to your scalp with water. Smell? You could also add honey and ginger!

  • Aloe Vera

Aloe vera is anti-fungal, anti-bacterial, and gently exfoliating. It is better to extract directly from the aloe vera plant as it is translucent and thick. Use a medicated anti-dandruff or light shampoo to remove it. Dr. Sirisha also suggests this herb to soothe an itchy scalp and reduce inflammation.

  • Neem Oil

The simplest dandruff remedy. Buy neem-based shampoo from your local store if you don’t have time or patience to try the above home remedies. Neem is anti- fungal and anti-bacterial, making neem dandruff shampoo a great home remedy. Twice a week apply and wash. Head and Shoulders Neem contains neem as well as other properties that may help prevent dandruff.

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