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Bird flu, also known as avian influenza, is a type A influenza virus. It is fatal to poultry and has the potential to be lethal to people as well. The bird flu can be pass between wild birds as well as birds that have been kept as pets. Additionally, it has transmitted from birds to humans. By intimate contact with poultry or other birds, whether poultry or other.

There is not enough information to conclude with certainty that the virus. That can passed from one human to another. However, in extremely unusual circumstances, a person may have been ill. As a result of providing care for a member of their own family who was ill.

This possibility that the bird flu virus may mash up with a human flu virus. And mutate into a form that could passed between people has scientists quite concerned.

The H5N1 variant of the avian influenza virus is currently spreading throughout Asia. Since 2003, this strain has been responsible for the deaths of over 130 individuals. In the countries of Indonesia, Vietnam, Cambodia, Thailand, Turkey, Azerbaijan, Egypt, and China.

In Australia, there have been multiple outbreaks of bird flu among commercial flocks of birds. However, each of these outbreaks has successfully managed and destroyed.

How Avian Influenza Virus is Spread

It is generally accepted that water birds like wild ducks are the vectors. For the spread of all avian influenza type A viruses. The viruses transported throughout the birds’ digestive systems. And released into the environment through the excrement of the birds (poo). There is a risk that birds that migrate while carrying the virus could spread it. To any of the countries that the birds visit.

Although wild birds often do not exhibit symptoms of bird flu. The H5N1 strain of the virus that is presently circulating has linked to illnes. And death in a number of wild birds. It is possible for the avian influenza virus to cause death in domesticated birds. Such as chickens and turkeys, more frequently.

Symptoms in birds might vary widely depending on the species. But they can include things like diarrhea, difficulty breathing, a swelled head, and even death. A diseased bird will release the virus into the environment through its feathers, mucus, saliva, and feces.

The spread of the avian flu virus to humans is possible when there is close contact between the two species. For instance, a person could touch a sick bird, get chicken feces on their hands. And then fail to wash their hands before eating. This would put them at risk for being sick. They will then consume the bird feces that infected with the disease. This is the mode of transmission of the avian flu most frequently seen in humans. That virus is also able to persist in raw poultry flesh. But it is eliminated by the cooking process as it normally carried out.

Symptoms

The primary symptoms of avian flu can manifest themselves very suddenly and include the following:

A very high temperature, the sensation of being hot or sweaty, or trembling with painful muscles. Also, painful headache, a hacking cough, or trouble breathing

Other early symptoms could include things like nausea and diarrhea.

Stomach discomfort. A painful condition characterized by bleeding from the gums and nose conjunctivitis. After becoming infected with the virus, it typically takes between three. And five days for the first symptoms to present themselves.

It is possible to develop more severe problems such as pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Within days after the first appearance of symptoms.

The possibility to avoid complications and lessen the likelihood of getting a serious sickness. By initiating therapy as soon as possible and utilizing antiviral medication.

Causes

The virus that causes bird flu is found in the wild in waterfowl. And it has the potential to spread to domestic poultry including chickens. Turkeys, ducks, and geese. The disease can contracted by coming into contact with the feces of an infected bird. Or the secretions that come from its mouth, nose, or eyes.

Open-air markets, particularly those that sell eggs and birds under crowded. And unclean conditions, are breeding grounds for infections. That have the potential to spread disease across the community.

The avian flu can passed on through undercooked poultry meat or eggs that came from sick birds. When poultry meat has cooked to an internal temperature of 165 degrees Fahrenheit. It can consumed without risk (74 C). Cooking eggs until both the yolks and the whites are solid is the proper way to prepare them.

Risk Factors

It appears that coming into contact with sick birds or with surfaces. That have contaminated by their feathers, saliva. Or droppings poses the greatest threat from the bird flu. There is still a lot of mystery around the human transmission pattern. It ThereIt have only been a handful of documented cases of the avian flu passing from one human to another. However, unless the virus starts to spread among people. In a more straightforward manner, infected birds will continue to pose the biggest threat.

The H5N1 virus has the potential to stay alive for very long periods of time. Birds that have infected with the H5N1 virus. That will continue to shed the virus in their feces and saliva for up to ten days. This infection can passed from person to person by touching infected surfaces.

How is Bird Flu Prevented?

It is possible that your physician will advise you to get vaccinated against influenza. In order to reduce the risk of contracting the human form of the illness. If you come down with a combination of the avian flu and the human flu at the same time. You may exposed to a novel and potentially fatal strain of the virus.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Has not issued any travel warnings related to H5N1-affected nations. You can, however, lessen the likelihood of adverse outcomes by avoiding the following:

Exposure to sick birds in open-air marketplaces and other public places. Fowl that not fully cooked. Be sure to wash your hands frequently and practice proper hygiene at all times.

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has given its approval. To a vaccination that supposed to protect against the avian flu. However, the vaccine is not yet available to the general population. In the event that H5N1 begins to spread among people. Medical professionals strongly advise using the vaccine.

Vaccine Development

Effective vaccinations are difficult to create due to the many immunologically different viral subtypes. That cause animal flu and the virus’s capacity to rapidly generate new strains. Rapid culling of contaminated farm populations and cleaning of farms and equipment. Are the most efficient poultry epidemic controls. This reduces human viral exposure.

In 2007, the FDA authorized a vaccination against one H5N1 strain. First human avian flu vaccination licensed. Drug manufacturers and policymakers in developed. And developing countries created a vaccination stockpile to protect against a future avian flu outbreak. Scientists also developed a vaccination against another subtype of H5N1. But one that may protect against all subtypes. Studies suggest human antiviral medications would work against avian flu in people. H5N1 shows resistant to amantadine and rimantadine.

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