Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) is an uncommon, self-limiting inflammatory illness of the small blood vessels (capillaries). It is the most frequent type of vascular inflammation (vasculitis) in children. And it causes inflammation in the small blood vessels. Headache, fever, loss of appetite, cramping, abdominal pain, painful menstruation, rashes, bloody diarrhea. And joint pain are some of the symptoms of HSP. On the skin, red or purple patches are common (petechiae). HSP-related inflammatory alterations can occur in the joints, kidneys, digestive system, and, in rare circumstances. The brain and spinal cord (central nervous system).
The skin and joints damaged in one type of the disorder, known as Henoch-Schönlein Purpura, but not the gastrointestinal tract. Affected individuals have purplish blotches on their skin and acute stomach issues, such as glomerulonephritis. In another form of the disease known as Henoch’s purpura (a type of kidney disorder). Joint disease does not impact those who have Henoch’s purpura.
Although research shows that Henoch-Schönlein Purpura is link to an aberrant immune response or, in certain rare cases. An excessive allergic reaction to particular offending substances, the exact etiology of HSP remains unknown (e.g., foods or drugs).
Signs & Symptoms
Henoch-Schönlein Purpura symptoms usually appear out of nowhere. They may include headache, loss of appetite, and/or fever, in addition to the typical red spotting of the skin. (Most commonly on the buttocks and backs of the legs). The skin usually turns red (diffuse erythema). Cramping abdominal discomfort can happen at any time, but it is most common at night. Blood may found in the stool, and abnormal gastrointestinal bleeding (hemorrhaging) can produce bloody diarrhea. Joint pain (arthralgia) can affect any joint in the body. But it is most common in the knees and ankles. Some patients with HSP have nausea and diarrhea, while others have severe constipation and very dark stool (melena).
Small red or purple patches (petechiae) appear on the skin of people with Henoch-Schönlein Purpura, notably on the legs. Small hemorrhages under the skin create these purpura spots, which are not accompanied with unusually low platelet counts (nonthrombocytopenic). As is the case with several other types of purpura. Large hives (urticarial wheals) or ulcers (necrotic) other skin lesions linked to HSP. Notably on the buttocks and legs. Swelling of the face and neck can occur as a result of inappropriate fluid collection. In these areas’ soft tissues (angioneurotic edema). Swelling and edema in the throat can create breathing problems, which can lead to life-threatening complications.
Between one-quarter and half of persons with Henoch-Schönlein Purpura have renal difficulties, such as glomerulonephritis. A condition in which the part of the kidney that separates waste from blood is destroy. Hematuria (blood in the urine) and inflammatory alterations in the kidneys are also possible. Severe kidney disease, such as IgG nephropathy, chronic inflammation of the kidneys (nephritis). And/or nephrotic syndrome leading to renal failure, can develop in some persons.
Although the specific origin of HSP is unknown, evidence suggests that it caused by immune system dysfunction. (I.e., increased IgA immune complexes). When the body’s natural defenses against “foreign” or invading organisms (e.g., antibodies). Which it begin to assault healthy tissue for unclear reasons, autoimmune illnesses develop.
It’s believe that this illness is cause by an excessive allergic reaction to certain foods. Like chocolate, milk, eggs, or beans in certain cases. In some cases, several medicines (e.g., nifedipine, diltiazem, cefuroxime, diclofenac), microorganisms (e.g., Streptococcus). And insect stings have suggested as possible causes. Rubella symptoms appear 30 percent of the time before HSP symptoms appear. In around 66 percent of cases, an upper respiratory infection occurs 1 to 3 weeks before symptoms appear. A definitive link between viral infections has yet to established.
People who are Impacted
HSP is an uncommon illness that is more common in men than in women. The disease can affect people of all ages, but it is more common in children.
Initial symptoms in children normally appear at the age of two years and remain for around four weeks. With the disease taking a very benign course. About half of the children who affected have one or more recurrences. Which usually happen within a few months. The rate of recurrence appears to be higher in children who had a more severe initial condition.
The majority of the youngsters who were afflicted were between the ages of two and eleven. In the United States, 14 incidents per 100,000 school-aged children are reported. In most cases, it is a benign (non-threatening) condition that goes away on its own (self-limiting).
Disorders That Are Related
The most common type of purpura is common purpura, which affects mostly women over the age of 50. Purpura lesions are more common than subcutaneous hemorrhage when there has been no damage. Blood vessel fragility, on the other hand, causes significant bleeding after surgery or even mild traumas. Short-term corticosteroid medication and/or estrogen delivery. In postmenopausal women may help to control bleeding.
Scurvy is a form of purpura caused by a vitamin C deficit in the diet. Generalized weakness, anemia, spongy gums, and a proclivity to bleed (hemorrhage). Under the skin (subcutaneous) and from the fragile mucous membranes that border. The mouth and gastrointestinal tract are all possible symptoms. Scurvy is rare in modern societies due to improved dietary practices and the availability of vitamin C-rich foods.
Gardener-Diamond syndrome (Autoerytrocyte Sensitization). Often known as painful bruising syndrome, is a rare condition. Purpura spots are the most common symptom, which affects mostly young women. The autoimmune condition Gardener-Diamond syndrome is suspected to be.
Vasculitis (angiitis) is a vascular inflammatory illness that can arise on its own or in conjunction. With other allergy or rheumatic conditions. Vascular inflammation causes blood arteries to tighten, resulting in a shortage of blood supply. To some parts of the body (ischemia), tissue loss (necrosis), and/or blood clots (thrombosis). Any vessel of any size or part of the circulatory system might be impacted, and symptoms vary depending on the system. Fever, headache, severe loss of appetite, weight loss, weakness, abdominal pain, diarrhea. And/or muscle and joint pain are all possible symptoms. Because there are so many different types of Vasculitis, there are also so many different reasons. Allergies or hypersensitivity to specific medications, such as sulfur drugs, penicillin, propylthiouracil, and other pharmaceuticals. Toxins, and other inhaled environmental irritants, may cause some kinds.
HSP can be difficult to diagnose, especially in adults. Other types of vascular inflammation are frequently mistaken. With this condition (see Related Disorders section of this report). Routine laboratory testing are rarely conclusive in determining the illness. Although white blood cell and sedimentation rates may be raised, the platelet count is usually normal.
Skin lesions and/or joint discomfort, as well as a confirmed test for blood in the urine (urinalysis) and a skin biopsy. That demonstrates inflammation of the arterial and venous capillaries, are used to identify the disorder.