What Is a Lungs and Breathing?
We breathe through our lungs and breathing system. They infuse our bodies with oxygen (inspiration or inhalation) and expel carbon dioxide (called expiration, or exhalation). Respiration is the process by which oxygen and carbon dioxide exchanged.
Why are lungs and breathing necessary?
Each cell in your body requires oxygen to survive. Oxygen and other gases in the air we breathe. After entering the lungs, oxygen is transported to the bloodstream and distributed throughout the body. Oxygen exchange for a waste gas called carbon dioxide at each cell in your body.
The waste gas is subsequently carried back to the lungs by the bloodstream and expelled. This crucial activity, referred to as a gas exchange, is carried out automatically by your lungs and respiratory system.
Apart from the gas exchange, your respiratory system plays other critical responsibilities in breathing. These include the following:
- Increasing the temperature of the air to the appropriate body temperature and hydrating it to the optimum humidity level.
- Safeguarding your body against hazardous toxins. This is accomplished through coughing, sneezing, filtering, or swallowing.
- Providing support for your sense of smell.
The Respiratory System’s Components and Their Function
- SINUSES are hollow chambers in the skull bones above and below the eyes connected to the nose through small apertures. Sinuses play an important role in regulating the temperature and humidity of breathed air.
- The NOSE is the favored route for entering the respiratory system from the outside. The hairs that line the nose’s wall are part of the system that cleans the air.
- Air inhale by the MOUTH is particularly important for persons who have a mouth-breathing habit or whose nasal passages are temporarily obstructed by a cold or during strenuous exercise.
- The THROAT gathers air from the nose and mouth and directs it downward to the windpipe (trachea).
- The WINDPIPE (trachea) is the tube that connects the throat to the lungs.
- The windpipe divides into two BRONCHIAL TUBES, one for each lung, further divided into lobes of the lungs.
Lungs and Breathing Circulatory System
- Three LOBES, or portions, separate the right lung. Each lobe inflates to the size of a balloon with sponge-like tissue. Air enters and exits through a single opening—a bronchial tube branch.
- Your left lung is bipolar, consisting of two LOBES.
- The PLEURA are the two membranes surrounding each lobe of the lungs and separate them from the chest wall.
- This movement propels MUCUS (sticky phlegm or liquid) upward and out into your throat, where swallowed. Mucus traps and retains most of the dust, bacteria, and other foreign matter that has infiltrated your lungs. When you cough, sneeze, clear your throat, or swallow, you eliminate this substance.
- BRONCHIOLES are the bronchial tubes’ tiniest branches, terminating in the air sacs or alveoli.
- ALVEOLI are the minuscule air sacs in which oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange.
- CAPILLARIES are blood veins located within the alveolar walls. Blood circulates in capillaries, arriving via the PULMONARY ARTERY and exiting via the PULMONARY VEIN. While in the capillaries, blood excretes carbon dioxide into the alveoli and takes up oxygen from the surrounding air.
Bones and Muscles
- Your DIAPHRAGM is the thick muscular wall that separates your chest cavity from your abdomen. It creates suction in the chest as it descends, sucking in air and expanding the lungs.
- RIBS are the bones in your chest cavity that support and protect it. They move slightly to assist your lungs in expanding and contracting.
What Are the Respiratory System’s Components?
The nasal passages, mouth, throat, voice box, windpipe, and lungs comprise the respiratory system.
The respiratory system supply with air via the nose or mouth. If inserted into the nostrils (sometimes called nares), it warms and humidifies the air. Cilia are microscopic hairs that protect the nasal passageways and other areas of the respiratory system by filtering away dust and other particles that enter the nose via inhaled air.
The airway’s two entrances (nasal cavity and mouth) meet at the pharynx, or throat, located behind the nose and mouth. The pharynx is a part of the digestive and respiratory systems since it transports both food and air.
This channel divides at the bottom of the pharynx into two sections: one for food — the esophagus, which leads to the stomach — and one for air. When we swallow, the epiglottis is a thin flap of tissue that covers the air-only route, preventing food and drink from entering the lungs.
The larynx, or voice box, is the portion of the air-only pipe located at the top. This tiny tube holds a pair of vibrating vocal cords.
Other components of the Respiratory System
The trachea, or windpipe, is the airway continuation beneath the larynx. The trachea’s walls are reinforced with tough cartilage rings to keep them open.
The trachea divides into left and right air tubes called bronchi at its lower end, which attach to the lungs. The bronchi branch into smaller bronchi and even smaller tubes called bronchioles within the lungs.
Bronchioles terminate in tiny air sacs called alveoli, the real sites of oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange. Each person’s lungs contain hundreds of millions of alveoli. The bronchial tree is a network of alveoli, bronchioles, and bronchi.
Additionally, the lungs contain elastic tissues that enable them to expand and contract without losing form. They encase in a delicate lining called the pleura.
The chest cavity, or thorax, is an airtight compartment that contains the bronchial tree, lungs, heart, and other tissues. The ribs and related muscles form the top and sides of the thorax, while a big muscle termed the diaphragm forms the bottom. The chest walls enclose the lungs and other contents of the chest cavity in a protective cage.
What Is the Function of the Lungs and Breathing System?
Our bodies’ cells require oxygen to survive. Our bodies produce carbon dioxide as cells perform their functions.
The lungs and respiratory system enable the body to absorb oxygen from the air while also removing carbon dioxide from the air breathed out.
The diaphragm descends toward the abdomen when you inhale, while the rib muscles draw the ribs higher and outward. This expands the chest cavity and draws air into the lungs via the nose or mouth.
Exhalation causes the diaphragm to rise and the chest wall muscles to relax, resulting in a smaller chest cavity that pushes air out of the respiratory system via the nose or mouth.
How does lungs and breathing works?
Each inhaler fills a huge fraction of the millions of alveoli with air every few seconds. Oxygen diffuses from the alveoli to the blood via the capillaries (small blood vessels) that line the alveolar walls.
Once oxygen enters the bloodstream, hemoglobin in red blood cells, this oxygen-rich blood then returns to the heart, which pumps it through the arteries to the body’s oxygen-hungry tissues.
Oxygen is liberated from hemoglobin and transported into the cells via the body’s small capillaries. Carbon dioxide is produced by the cells as they function and exit through the capillaries, where most of it dissolves in the blood plasma. Carbon dioxide-rich blood subsequently returns to the heart via the veins.